The ethical judgments of the Supreme Court justices have become an important issue recently. The court cannot _1_ its legitimacy as guardian of the rule of law _2_ justices behave like politicians. Yet, in several instances, justices acted in ways that _3_ the court’s reputation for being independent and impartial.
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
Justice Antonin Scalia, for example, appeared at political events. That kind of activity makes it less likely that the court’s decisions will be _4_ as impartial judgments. Part of the problem is that the justices are not _5_by an ethics code. At the very least, the court should make itself _6_to the code of conduct that _7_to the rest of the federal judiciary.
1. [A]emphasize [B]maintain [C]modify [D] recognize
2. [A]when [B]lest [C]before [D] unless
3. [A]restored [B]weakened [C]established [D] eliminated
4. [A]challenged [B]compromised [C]suspected [D] accepted
5. [A]advanced [B]caught [C]bound [D]founded
6. [A]resistant [B]subject [C]immune [D]prone
7. [A]resorts [B]sticks [C]loads [D]applies
8. [A]evade [B]raise [C]deny [D]settle
9. [A]line [B]barrier [C]similarity [D]conflict
10. [A]by [B]as [C]though [D]towards
11. [A]so [B]since [C]provided [D]though
12. [A]serve [B]satisfy [C]upset [D]replace
13. [A]confirm [B]express [C]cultivate [D]offer
14. [A]guarded [B]followed [C]studied [D]tied
15. [A]concepts [B]theories [C]divisions [D]conceptions
16. [A]excludes [B]questions [C]shapes [D]controls
17. [A]dismissed [B]released [C]ranked [D]distorted
18. [A]suppress [B]exploit [C]address [D]ignore
19. [A]accessible [B]amiable [C]agreeable [D]accountable
20. [A]by all mesns [B]atall costs [C]in a word [D]as a result
This and other similar cases _8_the question of whether there is still a _9_between the court and politics.
The framers of the Constitution envisioned law _10_having authority apart from politics. They gave justices permanent positions _11_they would be free to _12_ those in power and have no need to _13_ political support. Our legal system was designed to set law apart from politics precisely because they are so closely _14_.
Constitutional law is political because it results from choices rooted in fundamental social _15_ like liberty and property. When the court deals with social policy decisions, the law it _16_ is inescapably political-which is why decisions split along ideological lines are so easily _17_ as unjust.
The justices must _18_ doubts about the court’s legitimacy by making themselves _19_ to the code of conduct. That would make rulings more likely to be seen as separate from politics and, _20_, convincing as law.
Section II Reading Comprehension
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)
Come on –Everybody’s doing it. That whispered message, half invitation and half forcing, is what most of us think of when we hear the words peer pressure. It usually leads to no good-drinking, drugs and casual sex. But in her new book Join the Club, Tina Rosenberg contends that peer pressure can also be a positive force through what she calls the social cure, in which organizations and officials use the power of group dynamics to help individuals improve their lives and possibly the word.
Rosenberg, the recipient of a Pulitzer Prize, offers a host of example of the social cure in action: In South Carolina, a state-sponsored antismoking program called Rage Against the Haze sets out to make cigarettes uncool. In South Africa, an HIV-prevention initiative known as LoveLife recruits young people to promote safe sex among their peers.
The idea seems promising，and Rosenberg is a perceptive observer. Her critique of the lameness of many pubic-health campaigns is spot-on: they fail to mobilize peer pressure for healthy habits, and they demonstrate a seriously flawed understanding of psychology.” Dare to be different, please don’t smoke!” pleads one billboard campaign aimed at reducing smoking among teenagers-teenagers, who desire nothing more than fitting in. Rosenberg argues convincingly that public-health advocates ought to take a page from advertisers, so skilled at applying peer pressure.
But on the general effectiveness of the social cure, Rosenberg is less persuasive. Join the Club is filled with too much irrelevant detail and not enough exploration of the social and biological factors that make peer pressure so powerful. The most glaring flaw of the social cure as it’s presented here is that it doesn’t work very well for very long. Rage Against the Haze failed once state funding was cut. Evidence that the LoveLife program produces lasting changes is limited and mixed.
There’s no doubt that our peer groups exert enormous influence on our behavior. An emerging body of research shows that positive health habits-as well as negative ones-spread through networks of friends via social communication. This is a subtle form of peer pressure: we unconsciously imitate the behavior we see every day.
Far less certain, however, is how successfully experts and bureaucrats can select our peer groups and steer their activities in virtuous directions. It’s like the teacher who breaks up the troublemakers in the back row by pairing them with better-behaved classmates. The tactic never really works. And that’s the problem with a social cure engineered from the outside: in the real world, as in school, we insist on choosing our own friends.
[A] a supplement to the social cure
[B] a stimulus to group dynamics
[C] an obstacle to school progress
[D] a cause of undesirable behaviors
21. According to the first paragraph, peer pressure often emerges as
[A] recruit professional advertisers
[B] learn from advertisers’ experience
[C] stay away from commercial advertisers
[D] recognize the limitations of advertisements
22. Rosenberg holds that public advocates should
[A] adequately probe social and biological factors
[B] effectively evade the flaws of the social cure
[C] illustrate the functions of state funding
[D]produce a long-lasting social effect
23. In the author’s view, Rosenberg’s book fails to
[A] is harmful to our networks of friends
[B] will mislead behavioral studies
[C] occurs without our realizing it
[D] can produce negative health habits
24. Paragraph 5shows that our imitation of behaviors
25. The author suggests in the last paragraph that the effect of peer pressure is
A deal is a deal-except, apparently ,when Entergy is involved. The company, a major energy supplier in New England, provoked justified outrage in Vermont last week when it announced it was reneging on a longstanding commitment to abide by the strict nuclear regulations.
Instead, the company has done precisely what it had long promised it would not challenge the constitutionality of Vermont’s rules in the federal court, as part of a desperate effort to keep its Vermont Yankee nuclear power plant running. It’s a stunning move.
The conflict has been surfacing since 2002, when the corporation bought Vermont’s only nuclear power plant, an aging reactor in Vernon. As a condition of receiving state approval for the sale, the company agreed to seek permission from state regulators to operate past 2012. In 2006, the state went a step further, requiring that any extension of the plant’s license be subject to Vermont legislature’s approval. Then, too, the company went along.
Either Entergy never really intended to live by those commitments, or it simply didn’t foresee what would happen next. A string of accidents, including the partial collapse of a cooling tower in 207 and the discovery of an underground pipe system leakage, raised serious questions about both Vermont Yankee’s safety and Entergy’s management– especially after the company made misleading statements about the pipe. Enraged by Entergy’s behavior, the Vermont Senate voted 26 to 4 last year against allowing an extension.
Now the company is suddenly claiming that the 2002 agreement is invalid because of the 2006 legislation, and that only the federal government has regulatory power over nuclear issues. The legal issues in the case are obscure: whereas the Supreme Court has ruled that states do have some regulatory authority over nuclear power, legal scholars say that Vermont case will offer a precedent-setting test of how far those powers extend. Certainly, there are valid concerns about the patchwork regulations that could result if every state sets its own rules. But had Entergy kept its word, that debate would be beside the point.
The company seems to have concluded that its reputation in Vermont is already so damaged that it has noting left to lose by going to war with the state. But there should be consequences. Permission to run a nuclear plant is a poblic trust. Entergy runs 11 other reactors in the United States, including Pilgrim Nuclear station in Plymouth. Pledging to run Pilgrim safely, the company has applied for federal permission to keep it open for another 20 years. But as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the company’s application, it should keep it mind what promises from Entergy are worth.
27. By entering into the 2002 agreement, Entergy intended to
[A] obtain protection from Vermont regulators.
[B] seek favor from the federal legislature.
[C] acquire an extension of its business license .
[D] get permission to purchase a power plant.
26. The phrase “reneging on”(Line 3.para.1) is closest in meaning to
[A] managerial practices.
[B] technical innovativeness.
[C] financial goals.
[D] business vision
28. According to Paragraph 4, Entergy seems to have problems with its
[A] Entergy’s capacity to fulfill all its promises.
[B] the mature of states’ patchwork regulations.
[C] the federal authority over nuclear issues .
[D] the limits of states’ power over nuclear issues.
29. In the author’s view, the Vermont case will test
[A] Entergy’s business elsewhere might be affected.
[B] the authority of the NRC will be defied.
[C] Entergy will withdraw its Plymouth application.
[D] Vermont’s reputation might be damaged.
30. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that
In the idealized version of how science is done, facts about the world are waiting to be observed and collected by objective researchers who use the scientific method to carry out their work. But in the everyday practice of science, discovery frequently follows an ambiguous and complicated route. We aim to be objective, but we cannot escape the context of our unique life experience. Prior knowledge and interest influence what we experience, what we think our experiences mean, and the subsequent actions we take. Opportunities for misinterpretation, error, and self-deception abound.
Consequently, discovery claims should be thought of as protoscience. Similar to newly staked mining claims, they are full of potential. But it takes collective scrutiny and acceptance to transform a discovery claim into a mature discovery. This is the credibility process, through which the individual researcher’s me, here, now becomes the community’s anyone, anywhere, anytime. Objective knowledge is the goal, not the starting point.
Once a discovery claim becomes public, the discoverer receives intellectual credit. But, unlike with mining claims, the community takes control of what happens next. Within the complex social structure of the scientific community, researchers make discoveries; editors and reviewers act as gatekeepers by controlling the publication process; other scientists use the new finding to suit their own purposes; and finally, the public (including other scientists) receives the new discovery and possibly accompanying technology. As a discovery claim works it through the community, the interaction and confrontation between shared and competing beliefs about the science and the technology involved transforms an individual’s discovery claim into the community’s credible discovery.
Two paradoxes exist throughout this credibility process. First, scientific work tends to focus on some aspect of prevailing Knowledge that is viewed as incomplete or incorrect. Little reward accompanies duplication and confirmation of what is already known and believed. The goal is new-search, not re-search. Not surprisingly, newly published discovery claims and credible discoveries that appear to be important and convincing will always be open to challenge and potential modification or refutation by future researchers. Second, novelty itself frequently provokes disbelief. Nobel Laureate and physiologist Albert Azent-Gyorgyi once described discovery as “seeing what everybody has seen and thinking what nobody has thought.” But thinking what nobody else has thought and telling others what they have missed may not change their views. Sometimes years are required for truly novel discovery claims to be accepted and appreciated.
In the end, credibility “happens” to a discovery claim – a process that corresponds to what philosopher Annette Baier has described as the commons of the mind. “We reason together, challenge, revise, and complete each other’s reasoning and each other’s conceptions of reason.”
[A] uncertainty and complexity.
[B] misconception and deceptiveness.
[C] logicality and objectivity.
[D] systematicness and regularity.
32. It can be inferred from Paragraph 2 that credibility process requires
[A] strict inspection.
[C] individual wisdom.
31. According to the first paragraph, the process of discovery is characterized by its
[A] has attracted the attention of the general public.
[B]has been examined by the scientific community.
[C] has received recognition from editors and reviewers.
[D]has been frequently quoted by peer scientists.
33.Paragraph 3 shows that a discovery claim becomes credible after it
[A] scientific claims will survive challenges.
[B]discoveries today inspire future research.
[C] efforts to make discoveries are justified.
[D]scientific work calls for a critical mind.
34. Albert Szent-Gy?rgyi would most likely agree that
[A] Novelty as an Engine of Scientific Development.
[B]Collective Scrutiny in Scientific Discovery.
[C] Evolution of Credibility in Doing Science.
[D]Challenge to Credibility at the Gate to Science.
35.Which of the following would be the best title of the test?
If the trade unionist Jimmy Hoffa were alive today, he would probably represent civil servant. When Hoffa’s Teamsters were in their prime in 1960, only one in ten American government workers belonged to a union; now 36% do. In 2009 the number of unionists in America’s public sector passed that of their fellow members in the private sector. In Britain, more than half of public-sector workers but only about 15% of private-sector ones are unionized.
There are three reasons for the public-sector unions’ thriving. First, they can shut things down without suffering much in the way of consequences. Second, they are mostly bright and well-educated. A quarter of America’s public-sector workers have a university degree. Third, they now dominate left-of-centre politics. Some of their ties go back a long way. Britain’s Labor Party, as its name implies, has long been associated with trade unionism. Its current leader, Ed Miliband, owes his position to votes from public-sector unions.
At the state level their influence can be even more fearsome. Mark Baldassare of the Public Policy Institute of California points out that much of the state’s budget is patrolled by unions. The teachers’ unions keep an eye on schools, the CCPOA on prisons and a variety of labor groups on health care.
In many rich countries average wages in the state sector are higher than in the private one. But the real gains come in benefits and work practices. Politicians have repeatedly “backloaded” public-sector pay deals, keeping the pay increases modest but adding to holidays and especially pensions that are already generous.
Reform has been vigorously opposed, perhaps most egregiously in education, where charter schools, academies and merit pay all faced drawn-out battles. Even though there is plenty of evidence that the quality of the teachers is the most important variable, teachers’ unions have fought against getting rid of bad ones and promoting good ones.
As the cost to everyone else has become clearer, politicians have begun to clamp down. In Wisconsin the unions have rallied thousands of supporters against Scott Walker, the hardline Republican governor. But many within the public sector suffer under the current system, too.
John Donahue at Harvard’s Kennedy School points out that the norms of culture in Western civil services suit those who want to stay put but is bad for high achievers. The only American public-sector workers who earn well above $250,000 a year are university sports coaches and the president of the United States. Bankers’ fat pay packets have attracted much criticism, but a public-sector system that does not reward high achievers may be a much bigger problem for America.
36. It can be learned from the first paragraph that
[A] Teamsters still have a large body of members.
[B] Jimmy Hoffa used to work as a civil servant.
[C] unions have enlarged their public-sector membership.
[D]the government has improved its relationship with unionists.
[A] Public-sector unions are prudent in taking actions.
[B] Education is required for public-sector union membership.
[C] Labor Party has long been fighting against public-sector unions.
[D]Public-sector unions seldom get in trouble for their actions.
37. Which of the following is true of Paragraph 2?
[A] illegally secured.
[B] indirectly augmented.
[C] excessively increased.
38. It can be learned from Paragraph 4 that the income in the state sector is
[A]often run against the current political system.
[B]can change people’s political attitudes.
[C]may be a barrier to public-sector reforms.
[D]are dominant in the government.
39. The example of the unions in Wisconsin shows that unions
40. John Donahue’s attitude towards the public-sector system is one of
In the following text, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blanks. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the blanks. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET1.（10 points）
Think of those fleeting moments when you look out of an aeroplane window and realise that you are flying, higher than a bird. Now think of your laptop, thinner than a brown-paper envelope, or your cellphone in the palm of your hand. Take a moment or two to wonder at those marvels. You are the lucky inheritor of a dream come true.
The second half of the 20th century saw a collection of geniuses, warriors, entrepreneurs and visionaries labour to create a fabulous machine that could function as a typewriter and printing press, studio and theatre, paintbrush and gallery, piano and radio, the mail as well as the mail carrier. (41)
The networked computer is an amazing device, the first media machine that serves as the mode of production, means of distribution, site of reception, and place of praise and critique. The computer is the 21st century's culture machine.
But for all the reasons there are to celebrate the computer, we must also tread with caution. (42)I call it a secret war for two reasons. First, most people do not realise that there are strong commercial agendas at work to keep them in passive consumption mode. Second, the majority of people who use networked computers to upload are not even aware of the significance of what they are doing.
All animals download, but only a few upload. Beavers build dams and birds make nests. Yet for the most part, the animal kingdom moves through the world downloading. Humans are unique in their capacity to not only make tools but then turn around and use them to create superfluous material goods - paintings, sculpture and architecture - and superfluous experiences - music, literature, religion and philosophy. (43)
For all the possibilities of our new culture machines, most people are still stuck in download mode. Even after the advent of widespread social media, a pyramid of production remains, with a small number of people uploading material, a slightly larger group commenting on or modifying that content, and a huge percentage remaining content to just consume. (44)
Television is a one-way tap flowing into our homes. The hardest task that television asks of anyone is to turn the power off after he has turned it on.
What counts as meaningful uploading? My definition revolves around the concept of "stickiness" - creations and experiences to which others adhere.
[A] Of course, it is precisely these superfluous things that define human culture and ultimately what it is to be human. Downloading and consuming culture requires great skills, but failing to move beyond downloading is to strip oneself of a defining constituent of humanity.
[B] Applications like tumblr.com, which allow users to combine pictures, words and other media in creative ways and then share them, have the potential to add stickiness by amusing, entertaining and enlightening others.
[C] Not only did they develop such a device but by the turn of the millennium they had also managed to embed it in a worldwide system accessed by billions of people every day.
[D] This is because the networked computer has sparked a secret war between downloading and uploading - between passive consumption and active creation - whose outcome will shape our collective future in ways we can only begin to imagine.
[E] The challenge the computer mounts to television thus bears little similarity to one format being replaced by another in the manner of record players being replaced by CD players.
[F] One reason for the persistence of this pyramid of production is that for the past half-century, much of the world's media culture has been defined by a single medium - television - and television is defined by downloading.
[G]The networked computer offers the first chance in 50 years to reverse the flow, to encourage thoughtful downloading and, even more importantly, meaningful uploading.
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)
Since the days of Aristotle, a search for universal principles has characterized the scientific enterprise. In some ways, this quest for commonalities defines science. Newton’s laws of motion and Darwinian evolution each bind a host of different phenomena into a single explicatory frame work.
(46)In physics, one approach takes this impulse for unification to its extreme, and seeks a theory of everything—a single generative equation for all we see.It is becoming less clear, however, that such a theory would be a simplification, given the dimensions and universes that it might entail, nonetheless, unification of sorts remains a major goal.
This tendency in the natural sciences has long been evident in the social sciences too. (47)Here, Darwinism seems to offer justification for it all humans share common origins it seems reasonable to suppose that cultural diversity could also be traced to more constrained beginnings. Just as the bewildering variety of human courtship rituals might all be considered forms of sexual selection, perhaps the world’s languages, music, social and religious customs and even history are governed by universal features.(48)To filter out what is unique from what is shared might enable us to understand how complex cultural behavior arose and what guides it in evolutionary or cognitive terms.
That, at least, is the hope. But a comparative study of linguistic traits published online today supplies a reality check. Russell Gray at the University of Auckland and his colleagues consider the evolution of grammars in the light of two previous attempts to find universality in language.
The most famous of these efforts was initiated by Noam Chomsky, who suggested that humans are born with an innate language—acquisition capacity that dictates a universal grammar. A few generative rules are then sufficient to unfold the entire fundamental structure of a language, which is why children can learn it so quickly.
(49)The second, by Joshua Greenberg, takes a more empirical approach to universality identifying traits (particularly in word order) shared by many language which are considered to represent biases that result from cognitive constraints
Gray and his colleagues have put them to the test by examining four family trees that between them represent more than 2,000 languages.(50)Chomsky’s grammar should show patterns of language change that are independent of the family tree or the pathway tracked through it. Whereas Greenbergian universality predicts strong co-dependencies between particular types of word-order relations. Neither of these patterns is borne out by the analysis, suggesting that the structures of the languages are lire age-specific and not governed by universals
Section III Writing
Part A51. Directions:
Some internationals students are coming to your university. Write them an email in the name of the Students’ Union to
1)extend your welcome and
2)provide some suggestions for their campus life here.
You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET2.Do not sign your name at the end of the letter. Use “Li Ming” instead.
Do not write the address(10 points)
52. Directions: write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay you should
1) describe the drawing briefly
2) explain its intended meaning, and
3) give your comments
You should write neatly on ANSWER SHEET2.（20 points）
【介绍】日益资讯屏幕上显示，人民陪审员现身经济过程会让执行局的民事发来影向，我们马上会相信其民事不公平，以至于选D，be accepted as...“被相信是”。
【了解】了解短句格局能知，这个是由that修复系统的定语从句突显解释后面的习惯标准化，是说法院执行也还应准守适宜性于同一联邦政府司法部门部的习惯标准化。apply to “适宜性于”符合国家题意。resort to “求助电话于”;stick to “堅持(原则英文等)”语意堵塞。
【解读】要根据第8题而定，空内应填line，“界限”。 barrier “问题”，similarity“相同性”，conflict“互动”都各种题意。
【详细分析】只能根据句意，宪法学的起草、拟定者们预想的是将司法部门从政治经济中分刘海完成，让其享受独自的动力。envision as “将…想象的作文成…”。因而选B。
【辨析】此题承管上题，得知法没受政治生活的的影响，故而审判员我不用再担心掌权者(those in power)。
【解密】此题承连上题, 整合句意, 得知该下一句主耍表述“司法也必须政冶支撑了。”按钮C最符题意。
【解答】此题融合词意辨析。第一方面研究分析该句，可以知道空白的处修改下一词组可涉及一些 语从句，仅限“the law”。再者，文本中语境抒发“当法除理市场经济政策解读行政决策相关问题时，。。。的法不容尽量避免的兼具政治方面性。六个选项卡中，[C]为更好参考答案。
accessible to 易比较接近于的;可归属于的;都有机会得到到的可归因的
【解析视频】此题考查原理答配。此句承管上句，我委情况说明从此带动的可是，也乃是上面的介绍中所言的“。。。随着栽决看上来可以不易政治文化的会影响，如法律解释常见最令 卸载。” 整合4个页面设置中心思想，可以知道选[D]。
Section II Reading Comprehension
【解密】句子方面首段其中包含了两家面的方面，笔者先简洁明了介绍书书Peer pressure，再找出Tina Rosenberg在她的出书Join the Club中相对 peer pressure的观点，这篇句子方面是以一下书评的行式发现。而题型“会根据首位段，队友重压的发现经常会是…”问的不仅是队友重压，并无牵扯到到Tina Rosenberg也可以她的出书，那么答题则应核心牵扯到句子方面相对 peer pressure的介绍书书，之所以Tina相对 peer pressure的观点。首段第三方句说“(队友重压)平常造成不好的人和事，如嗜酒，嗑药，乱交”，故答题选D，介绍队友重压发现造成的的最终，下面的答题利用了同义更换的行为。
【解析视频】选择题干关健词“public-health advocates”就能够追踪定位到3段在最后一句句话“Rosenberg argues convincingly that public-health advocates ought to take a page from advertisers, so skilled at applying peer pressure”,即须得向广告投放商学习知识，这注意是关于词组“take a page from”的认识，4.答案选B
【解析视频】利用题干“在做者这样来看，Rosenberg的书还没…”，相应4.正确的答案是要求出做者这样来看这哲学书的瑕疵是是哪个。句子四段首要句话说“仅是，在…的方面，Rosenberg不太有吸引力”，随后着说“Join the Club中许多无光的要点，而针对于使伙伴各种压力能出现太过大做用的市场经济和微生物客观因素仍没有做十分的来探寻”，那句话能够充分表明了在做者内心中这哲学书的不充分哪里找儿，故4.正确的答案选A
【定量分析】这便是一种小细节题。篇文章五、段首句跟小编peer groups仍然会对活动诞生很大的的干扰，其次句准确表明干扰的的内容，即好的自觉性和不方便的自觉性都是根据社会中人际在兄弟圈中传达，最好两句则对这般干扰使用了工作总结，“这便是好朋友工作压力的细节现象，小编不小心识地复刻平常所观所闻到的活动”。而定量分析题干和选择，小编挖掘该题是对“imitation of behavior”使用总结，回原稿，查到“小编不小心识地复刻平常所观所闻到的活动”，正常答案即可不清，在等你是对unconsciously此词使用了释意，如此C选择正常。
【辨析】这道题目抽测笔者谈谈peer pressure所也可以带来了的应响的价值观，笔者经过第三一段话第一点句话第一方面向我们都认为他对“專家和各种关方人是否需要是能成功的 选用小伙伴来修复系统大家的情形朝好的导向发展进步”的不确实，接下面来以高中教师评价表毕业生的实例为详细说明，测得假设“The tactic never really works.”(这款思路从未无真实起能力)。经过笔者的这般一翻描术，也可以判断，笔者谈谈peer pressure是否需要是能能够果是提出异议的，故结论选D。
reneging 的原形是renege，本议是“食言”“反对”之意，为选择性现实意义词。而四位工具栏中A 中的condemning 意为“声讨”“处刑”B中的reaffirming 意为“重申”“再肯定会，再断言”，C中的dishonoring的意为“拒付，不兑付”，在蕴意和中心点上有合适，D中securing 意为“绝对，使人身险”的蕴意。文章具体在说Entergy这家平台不实现自身的许诺，那么应该选择C项。
本题正确的答案品牌定位在本文章中3.段每二句话，As a condition of receiving state approval for the sale , the company agreed to seek permission from state regulators to operate past 2012. “as a condition of”不错正确理解为“要想”，D 项中的“purchase ”这词可是对本文章中“sale”的修改。
题干：“不同然后段Entergy我司也许在它的····上发生着问題”，题型中已清析把原因条件选定在然后段，利用看然后段他们能够 看出Entergy我司现身了一大全系列的死亡事故“a string of accidents”,随后面的那句“raised serious questions about both Vermont Yankee’s safety and Entergy’s management”就本题的原因所属了。表中 “managerial” “management”仍是同一时间字的易变型。
关键在于从题干了解查考的是小说家的认识论。 “佛蒙特州事故”和will test在一篇文章中的位置定位是在第5段第5句话，“Vermont case will offer a precedent-setting test of how far those powers extend”意味是“佛蒙特州事故可能开展是他们被选举权连通多远的先例”。一句话是legal scholars的认识论。重點是表达certainly和but后方的意味。或许小说家污蔑困扰但如果每一个周各业其是的风险是适度的，只是But后方是个增强现实口吻，与实际上反过来。于是小说家的真正意义表现是认可legal scholars的认识论，即佛蒙特州事故是对州法律规定的限权设置的四大考验。How far those power extended与D应用设置的the limits of states’ power与应用设置D“各州在核现象上的限权设置”是相适应的，以至于合理的英语答案为D。任何应用设置与“佛蒙特州事故”带给的开展，文章从未进行提起。
然后段通常讲的是“Entergy工司的声誉已造成受创。该工司向联邦政府办理：许可证Pilgrim核电站厂站提升额外20年的放开权。是著者而言，核控制制度理事会会在审查该工司的办理的时分，务须要采取下该工司的诚信度状况。”A高级设置卡“Entergy工司在别的地方的小生意就能够因为损害”由然后段的独句话“Entergy工司的声誉已造成受创”就就能够推论除了;B“核控制制度理事会会的权威部门就能够被藐视”然后段没分享每要藐视核控制制度理事会会的暗含数据，因而B高级设置卡错识;C “Entergy工司就能够撤回来光于Pilgrim核电站厂站的办理”，然后段相同的没分享类似于的暗含数据;D “Vermont的口碑就能够因为危害” 相同的，从然后段，跟本没办法推论出。因而，最加答案大全是A。
这篇新闻稿件出自The Scientist,新闻稿件考题是The Evolution of Credibility。新闻稿件1段2.句话提及“But in the everyday practice of science, discovery frequently follows an ambiguous and complicated route."，即在一整天的科学技术实践活动中，看到所遵循原则的原理是答非所问和繁多的。A项uncertainty and complexity 是对这篇文章ambiguous and complicated的同义替换成，以至于为规范英语答案。
B项是运用本文到最后原句话的干忧“Opportunities for misinterpretation, error, and self-deception abound”，原句话是说“有错误的认知和自主隐瞒市场平均价格的可能”，若想促使了生物学感觉的含糊不清和繁多性;C项和D项是受原创文章第原句话的干忧，如果第原句并且提出者仅仅只有“在理想化中(in the idealized version of ...)，生物学感觉可以够很客观性的。
二是段二是句中讲过“But it takes collective scrutiny and acceptance to...”,其中的it指的是将合理发现了取得顾客可信性度的的步骤。反驳来的然后句话到底讲在这款的步骤：“through which the individual researcher's me, here, now becomes the community's anyone, anywhere, anytime.”，即要真实经历从小编的到全体的的步骤，要每一位人的主体的拼搏，故原因为B。
本段第两个句话中提起“Within the complex social structure of the scientific community, researchers make discoveries”，即“钻研者必须在生物学技术学群体繁杂的社会存在框架中变现生物学技术学发展了”，在这上句话的之后很多个分号，分号之后的两个简句各个释疑了在生物学技术学群体中各个定位的人所做的各个业务，如新闻视频导入者和发表评论家必须控住生物学技术学发展了公开性的期间,而另一个一系列生物学技术研究人员必须同过新的发展了来证明怎么写另一个的发展了等。除此以外，另外上句话“transform an individual's discovery claim into the community's credible discovery”即将迎来他人的发展了转为为群体靠谱吗性的生物学技术学发展了，故答复为B，即生物学技术学发展了得到媒体的靠谱吗性度必须群体的的努力和认可。
第三段主耍讲达到有效有效感觉获取大家靠谱吗度的的时候中会面临的两位内部解决矛盾。Albert Szent-Gyorygi的的观点主耍对於2.个内部解决矛盾，即自主创新身通常会产生疑心。一起他认定有效有效感觉必须要 “seeing what everybody has seen and thinking what nobody has thought”，即看见每一人都以经看见的，并体会出别人的是没有体会出的。全句话表达了有效有效感觉的的时候必须要 有判断性想法，即让我们会去探寻东西。故问题为D。
参考原因A与本段中讲到的一号个内部矛盾密切相关;参考原因B的优化推算来自五湖四海本段最好一句句话，一句话的中心思想是，完全有自主创新的发展必须要 耗时的查验来能够 民众的认证。参考原因C本文没了谈到，算是客观性臆断。
此题考察对在线阅读题旨大意的更准确总结怎么写。从正个散文主脉来了解，散文首个段指出其他发觉既定的关键是使之从客观化，同时此时候或多或是少会获得了的不一样的的日子生活环境的直接影响;后段指出该时候需用大众共同的的奋力;四号点段大概阐述了的不一样的的人去该时候中需用提交的运行;四号点段则指出了使专业发觉获得了可靠度的时候中其遭遇到的3个争论;后一段时间用Annette Baier的1句话总结怎么写了该时候。从此可预知，C项总揽在线阅读，为合理结论。结论A项与原句不一致;结论B 是后段中提及到的三环节;而结论D不过是对四号点段的笼统概括
利用题干定位功能于第二个段When …were in their prime in 1960, only one in ten American government workers belonged to a union; now 36% do. 事实是1960年时，英国政府办公室办公室办公室科室只要1/10的人是公会队员，所以说当今比重图是36%。所以说C应用设置正確：公会加强了政府办公室办公室办公室科室队员。A应用设置：Teamster 仍会有着越来越多队员。文章中只说起了比重图，并只要没有讲中应日数;B：吉米过去的也是个公仆。而文章中第二个句也是个一个语调的诗句，“只要他还活得话，他本文机会意味当名公仆”，曲解文意;D：政府办公室办公室办公室改善效果了与大学社团的关系的。文章中未能谈论。
该题很几率利用题干分析于第二步种步段。第二步种步段有很分明的first, second, third某些词，包括主要表现的举例说明处，最几率出小技巧题。只是需要将各应用设定与这几点细细提取需先。A 共同个部门企业在采取有效联合行动时很审慎本文中并示谈到，是对“they now dominate left-of-centre politics”这样的话话设定的不干扰项，“左派”为激进式派，不还可以能审慎;而B错在培训都是是需要的，然而是公务活动活动接待员学生学生组织会员受培训的情况常见过高，未必是所需;C工党持久与公务活动活动接待员学生学生组织争夺，该段倒数第二步种步句列举商会与学生学生组织很久有连续，结果一句话讲到商会领导人员Miliband荣获王位就是如果公务活动活动接待员学生学生组织的力推支持软件，所以与全文相悖;D应用设定为First, they can shut things down without suffering much in the way of consequences.这样的话话的同义叙写。的意思是“用户还可以息事宁人并不备受不当的结局”。
该题很特别非常容易精准定位于软文的然后段。题干是“国度机构专业者的公资现状分析是”。做这题能要把然后段一体化解读。主要But末尾的相关内容，特别是在是keeping the pay increases modest but adding to holidays and especially pensions that are already generous。大意是公共性机构销售者的公资涨跌幅很弱，而且节法定假日公益会员福利津贴补贴许多 。B按钮的indirectly augment意恩就是“相互地提高”。和全文意恩就“公有机构专业者的净薪水是薪水于公益会员福利等相互净薪水，不以顺利的公资净薪水”适用。A 借助擅自计算出来从原文中只提升了国度机构专业者的公资比私人厂家厂家的要高，整段都未谈到薪水，故该按钮都是过渡的逻辑;C 过渡的地增加从原文中并没有谈到增加的频率，提升是借助“暗厢工作”的习惯，特别非常容易使艺考生引发幸灾乐祸;D 很合理地调低与“backloaded”不一致。
题干的意思是什么是“举威斯康辛社团活动组织组织特征分析，说明社团活动组织组织_______”。该题要根据题干中的专世界闻动词Wisconsin标记于倒数第2段。由题干推测这也是同一家典例题，故此必须看优秀文章的第5段。第5段首句Reform has been vigorously opposed。从第6段Wisconsin的栗子能否听出，企业公会偏序多人批判共和党管理者人Scott Walker，正只为批判制度变。故此能否了解到企业公会或许是共同行业制度变的同一家心里障碍，C为正确合理界面。A 一直与当前状况政治课文化网络体系抵御文本中未曾体现often这些程度上。B 就可以变消费者们的政治课文化看法文本中并示谈到，D 在政府部门中占处理社会价值文本中第2句讲到社团活动组织组织到了成千几百万人的能够来克制强势的共和党州长，并不会发布该界面之意。
【详解】略读首个自然环境段确定这篇经典文章的风格是技术给老百姓的生存有的便捷，信息试论了新闻媒介。此题空在结尾，那 通读前所未有的信息，可能搜到特殊性词甚至学校词“creat a fabulous machine”阅览4个选择，C项中的“develop such a device”一半多与此使用
【分析】此题空在段末，往往要在盛况史无前例包括下一自燃段的段首找同步词，搜素器盛况史无前例不错找“superfluous material goods” ,而搜素器下一自燃段的句首可找“download”这些词;所以搜素器几个页面设置，结果A显现了“these superfluous things”，下面来也谈论得到“download”，往往不错修改结果A.
【辨析】此题空在句末，任何应该访问下前所未有很多年下个那自然环境段的句首，通读前所未有的信息需要寻找到绑定qq关系词“a pyramid of production remains,”，而下个那自然环境段的段首提起了“television”，特别访问6个界面，跟此绑定qq关系的有几项E和F,再仍然剖析，E项只要有“television”这类词与空后相应的，而F项不禁存在了“television”这类词，另外存在了“this pyramid of production”这类共同点词，任何，英语答案为F.
46. 【分析】本句结构的特征更非常简便，它就是一个非常简便句，语句主要结构的特征是one approach takes…and seeks…。破折号背后的大部分是对前边看到的基本原理的进那步解答。
1)take …to extreme…把……充分调动到透顶，把。。。推透顶限
2)theory of everything万言之有理论体系。或许也能能一家语句翻译专业出来的“使用到很多企业的理论体系”
2)“it seems reasonable to suppose that”对那句话话的汉语翻译资料资料行汉语翻译资料资料成一些长句，也行分离开来汉语翻译资料资料成“那 假如人文对比怎么样才能够追朔到更非常有限的发祥地, 种假如喜欢去更是合理的的了。”
3)而言 “cultural diversit”的领悟，你们易于由于已经在迎考中常常碰上的“cultural diversity”的影晌，随便汉语翻译工作成“艺术多元性”，但在小编，上文不少次看到了关联性，以这你们汉语翻译工作为“艺术区别”更该用。
48. 【解释】那句话话空间结构核心体现在对4个“what”从句的理解是什么。本题是4个what视情况加以鼓励的从句第1 个是what视情况加以鼓励的宾语从句，做filter out 的宾语。2、个what是介词from的宾语，from 是放置搭配着中的介词filter out A from B。第4个what是understand的宾语，和how共同
1)语段主要需要看为：To filter out A from B enables us to understand C and D
A指的是“what is contingent and unique”
B指的是“what is shared” how complex cultural behaviour arose”
C指的是“how complex cultural behaviour arose”
D指的是“what guides it in evolutionary or cognitive terms”
1)下面的the second与上面的“The most famous of these efforts was initiated by Noam Chomsky,”，所里下面是译成成“二是种的理论”全部这一句话话要据前后文和逻辑思维描述看不清楚。而不可以天真的译成成二是。。。
50. 【详细分析】那句话的结构的特别简洁，比较复杂的是这里面大批的专业术语和不掌握的词语。相对 他们词语小编跟据意译必须。
本句格局：Chomsky’s grammar should show…, whereas Greenbergian….
Section III Writing
Dear international students,
I am the chairman of the Students’ Union. I’ve just received the emails from you and got the news that you will come to our university. Firstly, I’d like to show our warm welcome. On behalf of our university and all the students here, I really look forward to your coming.
In order to make all of you feel at home, here are some conductive suggestions. Firstly, you’d better take some warm clothes with you because it is winter in China now and it is very cold in Beijing. Secondly, I advise you to prepare some relevant knowledge about Chinese culture for better understanding in class.
I really hope you’ll find these proposals useful. And I’m looking forward to your coming!
As can be clearly seen from the vivid picture, in front of a toppled bottel of which most water in it has flowed out, a man says “there is none left , how unlucky I am” looking rather upset, while another man quickly picked this bottle up, saying “I’m such a lucky dog, there is still some left”. How vivid the cartoon it is! The two men show quite different perspectives toward the same situation.
The implication conveyed in this cartoon is that different perspectives we take to exam problems we confront lead to different attitutes or answers to these problems. In the first place, we’ll find the problem is very difficult to handle from the pessimistic perspective. However, if we change our way of observing problems, we may find that we can make some remedial work even to turn something bad into good. In this way, we can find solutions for any difficulties. Every coin has two sides. So why not change an angel to observe the problem we encounter?
Whenever we face with the situation like the cartoon,what we should do is to observe it positively, especially when we are experiencing and encountering setbacks, only if we have the optimistic attitude, can we be bound to live a life of happiness